Art Inspired Fashion

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Art and fashion, intrinsically linked and more so than ever. From clothing design to catwalk show art direction, major labels to boutique houses, the word of fashion is falling over itself to involve important names from a diverse range of the visual arts. It’s hardy surprising — after all what is fashion if not wearable art — and these collaborations between the disciplines are certainly mutually beneficial. Fashion, often unfairly judged as one of the more frivolous applied arts, gains serious cachet by association, while the artist reaches a wider, more populist audience.

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Just as art and fashion so regularly collide, we bashed our heads together with online fashion destination Lyst (whose brilliant editorial arm The Long Lyst has quickly become one of the web’s go-to spots for well-considered fashion news; ideas; stories; opinion), digging up the history of this long-standing relationship. We talked art, they talked fashion, and the result was almost a century of boundary-pushing innovation, provocation and revolution. Let We Heart and Lyst walk you through the unbreakable bond between art and fashion…

Schiaparelli x Dalí, 1937 Lobster dress

Shoe Hat, 1937, modelled by Dalí’s wife Gala

If the collaboration between fashion and art is currently at a peak, it’s by no means a new phenomenon. Elsa Schiaparelli was one of the most imaginative and prominent fashion figures working between the two world wars. Her whimsical nature was perfectly suited to the genius of Salvador Dalí who inspired some of her best-known works. It could only have been the meeting of such minds that would create pieces such as the 1937 Lobster dress.

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Inspired

The simple white silk piece featured a giant lobster painted by Dalí and was a playful homage to his 1934 creation New York Dream-Man Finds Lobster in Place of Phone. Equally celebrated in Schiaparelli’s impressive catalogue is the wonderfully surreal Shoe Hat, made by Schiaparelli and designed by Dalí. The hat, fashioned into a woman’s high-heeled shoe, was modelled by Dalí’s wife Gala, and featured in Schiaparelli’s Fall-Winter 1937-38 collection.

Yves Saint Laurent, Fall Mondrian Collection 1965

Another early example of the fashion-art crossover stemmed from the bold geometry of Dutch painter Piet Mondrian, whose “neoplasticism” style was itself informed by cubism. In the 1930s, Hermès designer Lola Prusac looked to Mondrian’s famous works — featuring white backgrounds, grids of thick black lines and blocks of primary colours — for inspiration, producing a range of luggage and bags with square inlays of red, yellow and blue leather.

Mondrian’s work continued to exert a powerful influence on fashion long after his death in 1944. Legendary French designer Yves Saint Laurent enjoyed one of his most important successes when, in 1965, he unveiled his Fall Mondrian Collection. Although other designers had previously experimented with a similar design, it was Saint Lauren’s six A-line cocktail dresses that really captured the public’s imagination and broke new ground for the future role of art in fashion.

Paco Rabanne, ‘Unwearable Dress’

It’s not just painters who have sparked inspiration for leading fashion designers. Architects and their designs have also been cited as creative muses. Coco Chanel summed up the importance of this relationship when she said: “Fashion is architecture. It is a matter of proportion.”

Building some of the most iconic architecturally-inspired clothing has to be couturier Paco Rabanne. His first runway show in 1966 was titled 12 Unwearable Dresses in Contemporary Materials and featured pieces made out of sheet metal and rubber. Despite the unconventional materials, Rabanne skilfully structured his dresses to his models’ exact proportions.

Perhaps this is because Rabanne always had his mother’s advice in the back of his head: “In fashion you have every liberty except one, don’t ever undermine a woman’s beauty.” Rabanne was certainly true to these words, no matter what materials he was using.

The amalgamation of art and fashion is so successful that Alexander McQueen’s team decided to announce an exclusive collaboration with Damien Hirst in 2013. The work reflects a meeting of two of the darkest minds in contemporary design. Ethereal and haunting, McQueen takes inspiration from Hirst’s Entomology series.

Damien Hirst x Alexander McQueen

Butterflies, spiders and other insects crawl across McQueen’s collection of 30 chiffon scarfs, forming geometric patterns across the fabric. This collaboration was celebrated equally across both the art and fashion world, suggesting an interdependence that will long continue.

Rodarte Spring 2012

Looking at big name designers today, it’s clear they are continuing to follow suit by moulding all manner of art and design into their collections. Fashion’s favourite sisters, Kate and Laura Mulleavy, who have worked with high-street giants such as Gap and Target, are among those who have turned to the artistic canon for inspiration.

The sisters were celebrated for incorporating Vincent Van Gogh’s work in Rodarte’s 2012 collection, from subtle references to the impressionist painter’s thick brush strokes within their light fabrics and colour palette, to their bold tribute to Van Gogh’s Sunflowers in their iconic flower print chiffon dress.

But leave it to Marc Jacobs to take artistic inspiration to the next level. Unsurprisingly the conceptual artist Daniel Buren described their 2013 Louis Vuitton collaboration as a “totally crazy experience”. Not content with incorporating Buren’s check canvas designs into his clothes, Jacobs drafted the artist in to design the staging for his catwalk show.

Buren had complete artistic freedom when designing his monolithic set, complete with moving escalators. The breathtaking spectacle was installed in the central courtyard of the Louvre, creating an unforgettable collaboration of art and fashion.

Daniel Buren x Louis Vuitton Spring Summer 2013

We’ve seen how readily fashion has embraced the ideas of art, from the historical absorption of influences to the present day in which fashion collections are conceived and marketed using, and in part creating, the new-found celebrity of artists. But if the relationship is a two-way street, what of the art world’s engagement with fashion? Here too we find significant collaborations which challenge the notion of any perceived snobbery on the part of art towards fashion.

Takashi Murakami

Japanese contemporary artist Takashi Murakami can rightly be considered a pioneer of multi-disciplinary crossovers, working in both the fine art fields of painting and sculpture while at the same time enjoying success in the areas of animation and merchandise. His holistic, commercially-savvy approach makes fashion a natural arena for Murakami to express himself, and the artist recognised early in his career how increased exposure from mainstream collaborations could develop his overall practice.

It was that man Marc Jacobs again who got the ball rolling for Murakami, inviting him to work on a now-famous range of handbags for Luis Vuitton which re-invented the company’s signature LV emblem. Following the huge success of the project, Murakami has struck up a long-lasting creative partnership with the brand, and enjoyed further commercial and critical success with the likes of shoemaker Vans.

Tom Sachs, Chanel Chain Saw, 1996
cardboard, thermal adhesive
12 x 27 x 37 inches

Tom Sachs, Hermés Value Meal, 1997
cardboard, thermal adhesive
15.35″ x 7.87″ x 7.87″

On the topic of footwear, no discussion of the art-fashion symbiosis can pass without considering Tom Sachs and his work with sports mega-brand Nike. The American sculptor has something of a love-hate relationship with fashion and commercialism in general, having produced several high-profile works critiquing the fundamental ideas of luxury brands such as Chanel.

However, the more accessible field of sportswear gave Sachs a platform to explore issues of mass-production, economy of scale and environmental impact. The artist’s NIKEcraft collaboration centred around an imaginary, lo-fi mission to Mars, and pushed the boundaries of materiality by repurposing car airbags, boats’ sails and even an actual spacesuit to construct his near-future designs.

Contemporary artist Vanessa Beecroft has long incorporated fashion into her multi-disciplinary practice, with the Italian’s performance pieces making extensive use of models in haute couture loaned from big name labels. This interest in the performance aspect of fashion has led to some notable collaborations, especially centred around live shows and the theatricality of the catwalk.

Vanessa Beecroft, VB55, 2005, video
© Vanessa Beecroft, courtesy of the artist

When Kanye West launched his Adidas collection earlier this year, it was Beecroft’s influence that made the show stand out; referencing her 2005 performance work VB55, the models didn’t parade up and down a catwalk at all, instead occupying a space in unmoving, hypnotised ranks as they wore a collection of utlitarian, quasi-military urban casualwear.

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Finally, we wind the clock back to the ever-innovative master of multi-displinary art, Andy Warhol. The Pop Art genius had a long-standing fascination with fashion dating back long before the days of fame and The Factory. Warhol had started out in fashion illustration, working for glossy magazines designing for advertisements for products such as Schiaparelli’s gloves.

Advertisement by Andy Warhol for Schiaparelli gloves. Printed ink on paper. 12 3/4 x 9 1/4 in. (32.4 x 23.5 cm.) The Andy Warhol Museum, Pittsburgh; Founding Collection, Contribution The Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts, Inc.

Gianni Versace, 1991 Pop Art collection

His breakout artwork, the infamous Campbell’s soup cans, quickly crossed over from wall art to wearables, with New York society girls among the first to wear dresses printed with can designs in response to his show (Campbell’s themselves later produced a paper version of the dress for the princely sum of $1 and two cans of soup). Once an employee of tastemakers such as Harper’s Bazaar, Warhol became a tastemaker himself. He launched his own magazine, Interview, in which fashion figures — designers, models, and fashionistas alike — played a starring role, and there was never a demarcation between his professional and personal relationship with fashion.

Art Inspired Fashion Editorial

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Posthumously, Warhol’s position in the fashion Hall of Fame was cemented by Gianni Versace‘s 1991 Pop Art collection, which included a jewel-encrusted version of the artist’s lurid Marilyn Monroe prints.

It may be true that for every meaningful collaboration between art and fashion, there are ten creatively empty exercises in marketing. Putting cynicism aside, however, and there’s no disputing the symbiotic relationship that has always existed between the two – a relationship which only looks to be growing stronger as more of the contemporary art world’s top talents step over into the glamorous world of fashion.

Blame it on Marc Jacobs. The moment model Ruby Jean Wilson stepped onto his runway in New York wearing black micro-shorts and a white T-shirt adorned with black bars, followed by a posse of mod ladies outfitted in every possible variation of swirling, two-tone striped ensembles, everyone knew that op art and Minimalism would be a dominant theme for spring. It was as if a group of prisoners had plotted a daring escape from Sing Sing—provided that Victor Vasarely had been hard at work on their chic uniforms. “Every season is a reaction to what we have done before, but it’s also a consideration of what we want to explore,” said Jacobs. “The idea of visual impact felt really strong, but we wanted to do it in a nonemotional, nonromantic way.”

Three weeks later, Jacobs capped off the optic trend in Paris with his masterly parade of checkerboard column dresses, bags, and pointy slingbacks at Louis Vuitton. He partnered with the conceptual artist Daniel Buren, whose arresting, site-specific installations in historical spaces challenge tradition by confounding the viewer through articulations of light, space, and pattern. Buren created a set featuring four giant descending and ascending escalators that seamlessly delivered matching pairs of models onto a glossy yellow and white checkerboard runway. The mise-en-scène made for a memorable fashion moment that celebrated architectural space; it also lent suitable aplomb to Louis Vuitton’s new handbags embellished with outsize Damier checks brimming with tiny rows of sequins.

But Jacobs was by no means the only designer obsessed with graphic content. Just as the op artists of the 1960s embraced the bold power of modernism with their mind-boggling canvases (showcased in the seminal 1965 New York exhibition “The Responsive Eye”) and made figurative art seem old-fashioned and allegorical, many designers turned away from the nostalgia and poetic embellishment of the recent past with one dynamic stroke.

Street Art Inspired Fashion

Michael Kors’s usually sedate pencil skirts and cashmere tops were packed with stripes; Calvin Klein’s Francisco Costa played with mesh and contrast-color linings to create dazzling 3-D effects; L’Wren Scott’s sheath dresses juxtaposed vertical stripes with explosive zigzags; Sportmax’s chevron-striped dresses and Moschino’s black and white piped suits made one’s eyes widen, dance up and down, and, finally, shift into a trance-like state; Jil Sander’s curved zippered two-tone go-go boots looked like they could halt traffic—especially on a zebra crossing.

Of course, this is not the first time optical effects have jumped from gallery walls to the runways and beyond—think of Pierre Cardin’s modular space-age collection of 1970, Mary Quant’s miniskirted tailoring, and how photographer William Klein brilliantly lampooned everything “modern” in Who Are You, Polly Maggoo? That era’s obsession with pattern grew out of a desire to break free from the societal conventions and conservative dress codes of the past: The clothes disoriented, shocked, stimulated, and created great big exclamation marks. In 2013, bold geometric statements still have the power to capture the gaze—but, paradoxically, their current incarnation could be a sign that we are collectively craving some sense of order in our fractured, overly digitized lives.

“We are living in a very dizzy world, where everything is an assault on the senses,” said Michael Kors. “For me, the question was how to cut out the noise without going to a monastery.” Kors had been finding solace in California—in the clean, sharp architecture of Lautner and Neutra, in the contrast of concrete and glass under the vibrant sun, and in the work of the designer Rudi Gernreich. “Rudi always had a neatness and sharpness that showed off the body; his designs elongated and framed women. It’s about eliminating the negative, playing with lines—like architecture for the body.”

Flattering the feminine shape is one big democratic appeal of the optic trend, and so is its sense of youthful dynamism. “The past seasons have been so demure, ­buttoned-up, and ladylike, I had to remind myself I’m 34, not 64!” said London-based designer Jonathan Saunders, who showed dresses with swooshing lines, as well as sheaths with laser-cut satin “teardrops” bonded to the surface. “When I was a student in Scotland, I was really drawn to Victor Vasarely and his balance of colors and graphics. Op artists were criticized at the time for being all about ‘surface,’ but their work was also about color, line, and the feelings they elicit—it makes you appreciate rigor and sophistication.” Both Saunders and Jacobs also cited as an influence choreographer Michael Clark, who is known for his color-block costumes and sets that heighten and dramatize movement. Jacobs was so seduced by the way patterns and stripes flow on the body that he used a dancer for his fittings in New York. “I found the geometry of this collection very soothing,” he said. “It required an enormous amount of mathematical precision.”

Indeed, what is so alluring about the current op moment is that designers have pushed their research as much as their aesthetics in order to cleverly contrast textures, lines, and curves. The final effect might be refreshingly minimalist, but behind the visual impact is a combination of painstakingly handcrafted techniques, high-tech fabrics, and ultra-precise tailoring. Fashion is coming clean not just by referencing artists famous for cutting through visual clutter but also by stripping down clothes to the essential. And in the process, they are knocking us in the eyeballs.

On female models, from left: Louis Vuitton paillette-embellished jacket and skirt. David Webb 18k yellow gold, platinum, enamel, and diamond ring; Marc Jacobs pumps. Louis Vuitton paillette-embellished jacket and miniskirt, and pumps. David Webb 18k yellow gold, platinum, enamel, and diamond ring. On male models, from left: Salvatore Ferragamo wool jacket. Hardy Amies cotton shirt. Louis Vuitton wool and silk pants. Giorgio Armani tie; Tom Ford cummerbund; Gucci shoes. Giorgio Armani wool suit, and tie. Louis Vuitton cotton shirt. Falke socks; Tricker’s shoes.

Photographer: Roe EthridgeStylist: Giovanna Battaglia

On female model: Michael Kors broadcloth jacket, shantung shirt, and broadcloth shorts. Mordekai by Ken Borochov chokers and cuff; Chanel gloves, bag, and shoes; vintage hat. On male models, from left: Salvatore Ferragamo wool jacket. Hardy Amies cotton shirt. Giorgio Armani wool pants, and tie. Gucci shoes. Louis Vuitton wool and silk jacket. Giorgio Armani cotton shirt, and tie. Salvatore Ferragamo wool pants. Falke socks; Tom Ford cummerbund and shoes.

Photographer: Roe EthridgeStylist: Giovanna Battaglia

On female models, from left: Moschino triacetate blend jacket and skirt. Cornelia James gloves; Stuart Weitzman shoes. Oscar de la Renta silk duchess satin and silk gazar gown. Delfina Delettrez silver, rubber, zircon, and pearl necklace and bracelet; Ines gloves; Mordekai by Ken Borochov belts. On male models, from left: Giorgio Armani wool suit, and tie. Louis Vuitton cotton shirt. Tricker’s shoes. Salvatore Ferragamo wool jacket. Hardy Amies cotton shirt. Louis Vuitton wool and silk pants. Tom Ford cummerbund Giorgio Armani tie; Gucci shoes. Gucci organic wool faille jacket. Giorgio Armani cotton shirt and wool pants. Todd Snyder tie. Louis Vuitton wool and silk jacket. Salvatore Ferragamo wool pants. Giorgio Armani cotton shirt, and tie. Tom Ford shoes.

Photographer: Roe EthridgeStylist: Giovanna Battaglia

On female models, from left: Marc Jacobs sequin- embellished dress, bag, and shoes. David Webb 18k yellow gold, platinum, enamel, and diamond earrings and ring. Marc Jacobs sequin-embellished georgette dress, and shoes. David Webb 18k yellow gold, platinum, enamel, and diamond earrings; 18k yellow gold, platinum, enamel, ruby, and diamond ring, and 18k yellow gold, platinum, enamel, and diamond ring (from left). On male model: Salvatore Ferragamo wool jacket. Hardy Amies cotton shirt. Louis Vuitton wool and silk pants. Worth & Worth hat; Giorgio Armani tie; Tom Ford cummerbund; Gucci shoes.

Hair by Duffy for Tim Howard Management; makeup by Sil Bruinsma for Diorshow at Streeters; manicure by Honey for Exposure NY. Models: Bette Franke at DNA Model Management; Ava Smith at Wilhelmina NY; Fredrick Ruegger, Luca Schmidt, Brandon Hill, Fielding Lewis. Set design by Viki Rutsch for Exposure NY. Lighting design by Christopher Bisagni Studio; digital technician: Jonathan Nesteruk at Root Capture. Photography assistants: John Ciamillo. Will Englehardt. Fashion assistant: Solange Franklin.

70s Inspired Fashion

Designer inspired fashionPhotographer: Roe EthridgeStylist: Giovanna Battaglia

Fashion Inspired By Art

Hair by Duffy for Tim Howard Management; makeup by Sil Bruinsma for Diorshow at Streeters; manicure by Honey for Exposure NY. Models: Bette Franke at DNA Model Management; Ava Smith at Wilhelmina NY; Fredrick Ruegger, Luca Schmidt, Brandon Hill, Fielding Lewis. Set design by Viki Rutsch for Exposure NY. Lighting design by Christopher Bisagni Studio; digital technician: Jonathan Nesteruk at Root Capture. Photography assistants: John Ciamillo. Will Englehardt. Fashion assistant: Solange Franklin.