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News, email and search are just the beginning. Discover more every day. Find your yodel. This is a list of operators in the C and C programming languages.All the operators listed exist in C; the fourth column 'Included in C', states whether an operator is also present in C. Note that C does not support operator overloading. The amazingly-versatile USB-C port is more necessary than it’s ever been. From battery charging to ultra-fast data transfers, we’ve gotten used to USB-C, and it has become important to find.

The C date and time functions are a group of functions in the standard library of the C programming language implementing date and time manipulation operations.[1] They provide support for time acquisition, conversion between date formats, and formatted output to strings.

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Overview of functions[edit]

The C date and time operations are defined in the time.hheader file (ctime header in C++).

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difftimecomputes the difference in seconds between two time_t values
timereturns the current time of the system as a time_t value, number of seconds, (which is usually time since an epoch, typically the Unix epoch). The value of the epoch is operating system dependent; 1900 and 1970 are often used. See RFC 868.
clockreturns a processor tick count associated with the process
timespec_get (C11)returns a calendar time based on a time base
asctimeconverts a struct tm object to a textual representation (deprecated)
ctimeconverts a time_t value to a textual representation
strftimeconverts a struct tm object to custom textual representation
wcsftimeconverts a struct tm object to custom wide string textual representation
gmtimeconverts a time_t value to calendar time expressed as Coordinated Universal Time[2]
localtimeconverts a time_t value to calendar time expressed as local time
mktimeconverts calendar time to a time_t value.
ConstantsCLOCKS_PER_SECnumber of processor clock ticks per second
TIME_UTCtime base for UTC
Typesstruct tmbroken-down calendar time type: year, month, day, hour, minute, second
time_tarithmetic time type (typically time since the epoch)
clock_tprocess running time type
timespectime with seconds and nanoseconds

The timespec and related types were originally proposed by Markus Kuhn to provide a variety of time bases, but only TIME_UTC was accepted.[3] The functionalities were, however, added to C++ in 2020 in std::chrono.


The following C source code prints the current time to the standard output stream.

The output is:

See also[edit]


  1. ^ISO/IEC 9899:1999 specification(PDF). p. 351, § 7.32.2.
  2. ^open-std.org - Committee Draft -- May 6, 2005 page 355
  3. ^Markus Kuhn. 'Modernized API for ISO C'. cl.cam.ac.uk.

External links[edit]

The Wikibook C Programming has a page on the topic of: C Programming/C Reference
Retrieved from 'https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=C_date_and_time_functions&oldid=1010858019'
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In music, relative keys are the major and minor scales that have the same key signatures (enharmonically equivalent), meaning that they share all the same notes but are arranged in a different order of whole steps and half steps. A pair of major and minor scales sharing the same key signature are said to be in a relative relationship.[1][2] The relative minor of a particular major key, or the relative major of a minor key, is the key which has the same key signature but a different tonic; this is as opposed to parallel minor or major, which shares the same tonic. Relative keys are a type of closely related keys, the keys between which most modulations occur, because they differ by no more than one accidental. Relative keys are the most closely related, as they share exactly the same notes.[3] To distinguish a minor key from its relative major, one can look to the first note/chord of the melody, which usually is the tonic or the dominant (fifth note); The last note/chord also tends to be the tonic. A 'raised 7th' is also a strong indication of a minor scale (instead of a major scale): For example, C major and A minor both have no sharps or flats in their key signatures, but if the note G (the seventh note in A minor raised by a semitone) occurs frequently in a melody, then this melody is likely in A minor, instead of C major.

The minor key starts three semitones below its relative major; for example, A minor is three semitones below its relative, C major.

Circle of fifths showing major and minor keys

Relative tonic chords on C and A (Play).
Chromatic modulation in Bach's Du grosser Schmerzensmann, BWV 300, m. 5-6 (Play with half cadence, Play with PAC) transitions from FM to its relative minor dm through the inflection of C to C between the second and third chords. Note that this modulation does not require a change of key signature.

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Relative major and minor scales on C and A with shared notes connected by lines.

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For example, G major and E minor both have a single sharp in their key signature at F; therefore, E minor is the relative minor of G major, and conversely G major is the relative major of E minor. The tonic of the relative minor is the sixth scale degree of the major scale, while the tonic of the relative major is the third degree of the minor scale.[1] The relative relationship may be visualized through the circle of fifths.[1]

A complete list of relative minor/major pairs in order of the circle of fifths is:

Key signatureMajor keyMinor key
B, E, A, D, G, C, FC majorA minor
B, E, A, D, G, CG majorE minor
B, E, A, D, GD majorB minor
B, E, A, DA majorF minor
B, E, AE majorC minor
B, EB majorG minor
BF majorD minor
C majorA minor
FG majorE minor
F, CD majorB minor
F, C, GA majorF minor
F, C, G, DE majorC minor
F, C, G, D, AB majorG minor
F, C, G, D, A, EF majorD minor
F, C, G, D, A, E, BC majorA minor


The term for 'relative key' in German is Paralleltonart, while parallel key is Varianttonart. Similar terminology is used in most Germanic and Slavic languages, but not Romance languages. This is not to be confused with the term parallel chord, which denotes chords derived from the relative key in English usage.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ abcBenward & Saker (2003). Music in Theory and Practice, Vol. I, p.33-35. ISBN978-0-07-294262-0. 'D flat major and a minor scale that have the same key signature are said to be in a relative relationship.'
  2. ^Forte, Allen (1979). Tonal Harmony, p.9. 3rd edition. Holt, Rinehart, and Wilson. ISBN0-03-020756-8. 'The key which shares the same key signature but not the same first degree with another scale is called relative. Thus, the relative of C major is A minor (no sharps or flats in either key signature); the relative major of A minor is C major.'
  3. ^Benward & Saker (2003), p.243.

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