In Fresnel Diffraction

Derivation of Kirchhoff's diffraction formula. Kirchhoff's integral theorem, sometimes referred to as the Fresnel–Kirchhoff integral theorem, uses Green's identities to derive the solution to the homogeneous wave equation at an arbitrary point P in terms of the values of the solution of the wave equation and its first order derivative at all points on an arbitrary surface which encloses P. Fresnel's Equations for Reflection and Transmission Incident, transmitted, and reflected beams Boundary conditions: tangential fields are continuous Reflection and transmission coefficients The 'Fresnel Equations' Brewster's Angle Total internal reflection Power reflectance and transmittance Augustin Fresnel 1788-1827. In classical physics, the diffraction phenomenon is described by the Huygens–Fresnel principle that treats each point in a propagating wavefront as a collection of individual spherical wavelets. It embeds a Fresnel-zone construction on an original object to form a phase-chirped distorted object, which is then Fourier transformed to form a diffraction image. This approach extends the applicability of Fourier-based iterative phasing algorithms into the near-field holographic regime where phase retrieval had been difficult.

  1. Fresnel Diffraction Formula
  2. In Fresnel Diffraction Analysis

Imaging condition: ray-tracing. (Image by Prof. George Barbastathis.)


Prof. George Barbastathis

Prof. Colin Sheppard

Dr. Se Baek Oh

MIT Course Number

2.71 / 2.710

As Taught In

Spring 2009


Undergraduate / Graduate

Some Description



As Taught In

Spring 2002

Course Number





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Course Description

Course Features

Course Description

This course provides an introduction to optical science with elementary engineering applications. Topics covered in geometrical optics include: ray-tracing, aberrations, lens design, apertures and stops, radiometry and photometry. Topics covered in wave optics include: basic electrodynamics, polarization, interference, wave-guiding, Fresnel and Fraunhofer diffraction, image formation, resolution, space-bandwidth product. Analytical and numerical tools used in optical design are emphasized. Graduate students are required to complete assignments with stronger analytical content, and an advanced design project.

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Fresnel Diffraction Formula

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