Modo Camera

The Camera Item is a virtual lens into the 3D world inside Modo. Everything rendered is seen from this point of view, as such, these settings determine how your camera sees your 3D world. Much like how a real camera operates, the camera captures your image, and works in conjunction with the Render Item making your virtual snapshot viewable in the Render Display.

  1. Moto Camera 2
  2. Zmodo Camera Setup

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What is displayed depends on your render output, which acts as a virtual developer determining what actually gets rendered when any render command is invoked (or you press F9). While the Camera Item contains the properties related to the projection, frame aspect ratio, DOF, and so on, the actual frame resolution is set within the Render Item under the Frame properties.

This video is a quick introduction to the Set Target option for Cameras in MODO, which allows you to target specific items in a scene, automating the rotation of your camera, so that it. Zmodo Outdoor Security Camera (4 Pack), 1080p Full HD Wireless Cameras for Home Security with Night Vision, Cloud Service Available, White (ZM-W0002-4) 4.0 out of 5 stars.

Each new Modo scene has a single camera item by default. Additional cameras may be added to the scene with the menu bar command Item > Create Camera or within the Item List viewport Add Item function; left-click the Add Item button and select Camera from the dropdown. Additional cameras are helpful in providing alternate views of a scene, easing navigation, or for providing close-up views of a particular area, especially in situations where the hero (principle) camera is animated and locked, avoiding accidental changes. Only a single camera may be rendered from at a time, the particular camera used is specified in the Render Item: Frame sub-tab under the Render Camera option. Additionally, alternate cameras may be selected within the Render Preview viewport using the select camera option available, without affecting the Render Camera used for final rendering.

Working with the Camera

Camera attributes, such as Position and Rotation, can be modified in the Properties panel whenever the Camera Item is selected in either the Item List or the Shader Tree. By default, the camera icon is only visible in the Animate and Render 3D Viewports, but by changing the visibility in the viewport options, they can be made viewable in any viewport.

Hover the mouse pointer over the 3D Viewport you wish to modify, and press O on the keyboard to open the 3D Viewport Properties panel.

Camera Items can be modified interactively in the 3D Viewport while in Items mode (Camera Items have no editable components). Use the standard transform tools to move (W) and rotate (E) the camera. When making fine adjustments, you may find it easier to see how the camera is viewing the scene. This can be done by changing the viewport view button in the upper left to Camera. When set as such, black bars may be drawn over the viewport if the aspect ratio of the Frame Size is different from the viewport's aspect ratio. The area inside the bars represents the area of the scene that renders when a render command is invoked. To position the camera while in this view mode, various keyboard/mouse options are available.

Keyboard/Mouse Options

Camera Actions

Shift+Alt+Left-click and drag

Move camera item

Shift+Alt+RMB Drag

Move Up/Down direction only

Alt+Left-click and drag

Rotate around Target Distance

Alt+Right-click and drag

Rotate around Camera center

Ctrl+Middle-click and drag

Rotate around the Z axis

Ctrl+Alt+Left-click and drag

Move Forward/Backward only

Ctrl+Alt+Right-click and drag

Adjust Focal Length

Roll Mouse Wheel

Move Forward/Backward only

Moto Camera 2

When tool handles are set to Advanced (within the Preferences or Tool Pipe), additional handles become visible, allowing you to interactively adjust camera setting in the viewport. The handles are:

Adjust Focal Length/Field of View

Zmodo camera troubleshooting

Adjust F-Stop for Depth of Field

Adjust Convergence Distance

Adjust Focus Distance

Parallax Offset Difference value (distance between items for left and right eye in final rendered frame) expressed as percentage of frame width

You can drag the handle around the scene to get an idea how far apart elements appear on the screen when rendered as a stereo image.

Generally speaking, for comfortable viewing you should keep the sum of the values for the closest elements in frame to the farthest elements around 5% and under. Adjustments can be made to Interoccular Distance and the Convergence Distance options to help in obtaining this result.

Zmodo camera setup

TIP:You may find it more intuitive to adjust the camera when the Action Center is set to Local, keeping the transform handles aligned to the Camera Item itself.

On occasion, you may wish to modify the size of the camera icon within the 3D Viewport. This can be accomplished with the Size setting in the Display viewport, which offers additional settings for modifying the camera's icon representation, including the ability to label the item, enable the Safe Area display, and toggle the display of the Stereo Volume. You can also adjust the camera's Scale option in the Properties panel.

NOTE:Changing the size of the camera icon in no way affects the rendering outcome or the overall scale of the scene.

Camera View

Option

Description

Name

This data field displays the current item name. You can change it by left-clicking within the field and typing the new name.

Transform

Position

An item transform that allows you to numerically position the Camera Item in XYZ space. By default, Position transforms originate from the item's center position.

Rotation

An item transform that allows you to numerically set the rotation of the Camera Item. By default, Rotation transforms originate from the item's center position.

Order

Allows you to set the order in which rotations are applied to the Camera Item. Changing the order that rotations are applied can sometimes help to reduce, or eliminate gimbal lock.

Scale

An item transform that determines the size of the icon in the 3D Viewport. Scale otherwise has no effect on the final rendered image.

Reset

Resets the selected transform values to (0,0,0), returning the items to their default state.

Zero

Returns the Camera Item's Center position to the world space center (0,0,0), without changing the position of the Camera Item itself.

Add

Transform Items are the channel groups associated to an item that store its transform values, controlling its position, rotation, and/or scale. By default, new items do not have any transform items associated with them (even though they are visible here within the Properties panel). This is useful as an optimization as only the necessary transforms are added on an as-needed basis, reducing scene overhead.

There are several ways to add Transform Items. One is by simply transforming the target item with one of the various transform tools (or by editing the values input fields). This action causes the particular transform item to be added automatically to the Channels viewport list. The Add function here can also be used to add the selected set of transforms to the Channels list while keeping the default 0,0,0 values (a necessary step for Referencing; in order to override channels, they must first exist).

Set Target

This option allows you to target specific items in a scene, automating the rotation of an item, so that it continuously points toward the targeted item. To use Set Target:

1. Make sure you are in Items mode, and select the Camera Item (and only the Camera Item).
2. Hold down the Ctrl key and select a single additional item in the Items list that you wish to target (such as a locator), in that order; as the selection order is important.
3. Click Set Target under the Camera View options sub-tab to enable the function.

Remember though, that the camera looks directly at the item's center position, regardless of the location of geometry within the target layer. Once activated, additional options appear:

Remove Target - Removes the target link between the two items.

Enable - Toggling this option off temporarily disables the targeting function while retaining the link between the items.

Set Focus Distance - This option sets the focal distance for DOF when targeting camera items to other item.

Roll - Provides the ability to offset the item's rotation angle away from the target.

Target Distance

This value defines the point around which the camera orbits. When you start a fresh project, the camera is back 4M on Z and the Target Distance is 4M. That is why it orbits around 0.

This value is reset automatically when you zoom in the 3D Viewport. Modo fires a ray out from the camera and automatically sets the target distance based on the first surface the ray intersects.

Sync to View

This option changes the position and orientation of the currently selected Camera Item to match the currently selected 3D Viewport as closely as possible. There are some caveats in that the camera's view scale depends on the focal length and image resolution (for aspect) and therefore cannot be matched precisely.

Projection

Projection Type

Modo can render traditional perspective cameras as well as orthographic cameras and spherical cameras. This control allows you to choose the desired camera type:

Perspective cameras show perspective distortion where the scale of an element appears to diminish in the distance. This traditional perspective view is what most artists would expect when rendering; similar to what a real world camera might capture.

Perspective cameras are found most often in visual FX, product and architectural visualization, and anywhere artists are trying to mimic reality.

Orthographic cameras do not exhibit any perspective distortion as all rays are fired from the camera in parallel lines.

Orthographic rendering is very useful in news/info graphics and architectural plan rendering.

Spherical cameras capture the entire 360 degree view of a scene.

Spherical cameras are useful in capturing images that can be later applied as image based lighting and reflection maps, among other things.

Cylindrical projection captures the entire 360 view from the perspective of a tube, removing the polar areas of the projection.

Perspective Camera

Orthographic Camera

Spherical Camera

Cylindrical Projection

Focal Length

This setting controls the amount of zoom, just as it would with a real world camera. The actual definition of Focal Length is the distance between the lens and the point where the rays converge after having been refracted by the lens.

Wide angle lenses (those with short focal lengths) capture more of a given scene than their telephoto counterpart. Lower focal lengths exhibit more perspective distortion, conversely, longer focal lengths minimize the effect of perspective. To zoom out you should decrease the focal length and to zoom in you increase the value. This control is set in real world metric units to match physical cameras.

Focal Length can be adjusted on the CameraProperties panel or interactively in the 3D Viewport. If you are looking through the Camera (and 3D Viewport set to Camera) you can use Ctrl+Alt+right-click and drag to adjust the Focal Length interactively (Ctrl+Alt+left-click and drag moves the camera itself forwards and backwards).

Angle of View

In some instances, it may be easier to specify an angle of view instead of a Focal Length. This setting allows you to specify the Angle of View as a number of degrees horizontally, and once set, the Focal Length is updated to reflect the new value.

Lens Distortion

In a real world camera, light rays are bent through a spherical lens element resulting in a slightly distorted image. 3D rendered images don't pass through a lens and likewise don't exhibit the distortions we're accustomed to in photography. The Lens Distortion setting can be used to introduce these familiar distortions in a realistic way. Positive values create an increasing Barrel distortion, and negative values create increasing Pincushion distortion effects.

Standard CG Wide Angle View

Same view w/ Lens Distortion applied

Film Back

In the real world, every camera has certain attributes that are a fixed physical size. In the analog days, this was based on the film size (such as 35 mm, 70 mm, and so on). With digital cameras, it is the sensor size (such as 1/3, 1/2, APS, and so on). The size of this fixed capture area works in conjunction with the focal length to control the field of view that is captured. Modo offers the ability to modify the virtual capture area to any conceivable size.

For example, should you wish to compose 3D rendered elements together with images from a camera, for the most convincing results, matching the real-life sizes and aspect ratios of the original camera is highly recommended. Many popular preset sizes are provided for convenience, but you can also define custom values with the Width and Height settings. The Film Fit setting allow you to control Modo's behavior when the frame size specified in the Render Item, is a different aspect ratio than the film back settings.

Film Back Preset

This control allows you to choose from a number of available preset real world cameras. Choosing a preset automatically sets the Film Width and Height, and the corresponding Frame Size (in the Render Items > Frame Tab). You can also save your own presets by selecting (new preset) from the bottom of the list. When selecting this option, a dialog displays asking you to name your preset. Your new preset is saved in Modo's config file and is available immediately for selection.

Film Width/Height

Film Width and Film Height correspond to the exposed region of the film negative in a real camera set in real world measurements. In some applications, this is known as the Film Gate. One way to visualize this is to imagine the camera frustum as a pyramid whose base dimensions are the Film Width and Height and terminating at the apex. The distance from the base to the apex is the Focal Length (the apex being the position of Modo's virtual aperture and the position where the camera rotates, which incidentally, is also the nodal point). The base of the pyramid can be shifted around within its plane (shearing the pyramid) by using the Film Offset controls.

Film Offset X/Y

This function allows you to offset the position of the Film Back without changing the position of the Camera Item itself, providing unique perspective views not otherwise possible. The function is especially useful when rendering architectural type images that prefer two point perspective as opposed to three. By rotating the camera on the X axis to 0° (eliminating the vertical perspective), the offset can be adjusted to modify the camera's view (framing the subject properly) while retaining the perspective of the camera's original position.

The three images below illustrate the differences between film offset and simply moving the camera.

A.) The camera standard perspective view with the subject centered in the frame.

B.) Rotates the camera X axis to 0° and uses a Film Offset to frame the subject eliminating the vertical perspective.

C.) Is the default perspective camera again with no offset, but the camera was rotated to 0° on the X axis again and the camera's position was modified upward to frame the subject producing a dramatically different perspective than that offered by B.

A.) Normal Perspective Camera

B.) 0° X-axis rotation w/ Film Offset

C.) 0° X-axis rotation w/ camera offset

Film Fit

Film Fit only matters when the Camera Item's film gate (defined by the Film Width and Height above) has a different aspect ratio than the Render Item's resolution gate (defined by the actual frame's Width, Height, and Pixel AspectRatio). In that case, the two possibilities are that the horizontal borders coincide, or the vertical borders coincide. The Fill and Overscan options automatically select whether to match the horizontal or vertical borders in order to make the resolution gate fit within the film gate or vice versa.

You can think of the film gate (Film Width and Height) as the size of the film in the camera in real world units, with the film being analog (not divided into pixels). Then you take the exposed film frame and lay it on a digital scanner (the resolution gate), which is divided into pixels, and which might have a different shape (wider or taller). It's the resolution gate that gets saved to the output image file.

Camera Effects

Moto camera 2

Distant Chair in Focus

Near Chair in Focus

Option

Description

Depth of Field

Depth of Field (DOF), as it relates to photography, is the area of acceptable focus in an image; any area outside gets increasingly blurry as it recedes from the focal plane. The softening of edges as they recede from the plane is highly dependent on the F-Stop setting. Smaller values represent larger apertures producing softer blurs, conversely, higher values represent smaller apertures producing less blurriness.

Enable

This option toggles the Depth of Field effect on and off when rendering.

Focal Distance

When rendering with Depth of Field enabled, this value sets the distance out from the camera center at which the image is perfectly in focus. To quickly set the focus distance for the camera, you can use the Autofocus button or press Ctrl+A with the mouse over the Camera viewport. You can also set this value interactively with the Item Transform tool (Y) when the Camera item is selected.

Autofocus

This command sets the Focal Distance to whatever geometry is at the direct center of the current camera view. Setting the Focal Distance is only useful when rendering with Depth of Field enabled. You can also use the keyboard shortcut Ctrl+F when the mouse is over any Render Preview window.

F-Stop

This control on the Modo camera is only effective when Depth of Field is enabled. In this case, lowering the F-Stop decreases the depth of field (apparent area of focus) just as it would in real-world cameras.

NOTE:F-Stop does not affect exposure of light since the Modo camera captures real world radiance values as they are striking the virtual CCD. This provides linear light values to the final image which provides an opportunity for post processing the exposure for maximum flexibility.

Iris Blades

This controls the way the blurriness looks in images with shallow depth of field, generally referred to as Bokeh. Bright areas, when out of focus tend to take on the shape of the camera's iris, so a smaller number of blades make more obvious geometric patterns in the bokeh shapes, while larger values look more circular. A setting of 0 makes a perfectly circular shape.

Iris Blades 0 (default)

Iris Blades 3

Iris Blades 5

Iris Blades 7

Iris Blades 9

Iris Rotation

This option changes the rotation angle of the virtual iris when rendering shallow depth of field in images, which in turn rotates the bokeh shapes in the final rendered output.

Edge Weighting

When Modo calculates Depth of Field, rays are fired in a pattern that simulates the iris blades producing the bokeh effect shapes. The edge weighting option concentrates those rays toward the center or edges of the iris, depending on the value.

A value of 0% concentrates all the values at the center of the iris, while a setting of 100% concentrates the rays toward the outer edge. A value of 50% evenly distributes the rays. As light tends to be stronger in the outer edge of the iris in the real world, setting around 60% to 70% tend to produce the most realistic results.

Edge Weight 0%

Edge Weight 25%

Edge Weight 50%

Edge Weight 75%

Edge Weight 100%

Motion Blur

Real cameras don't freeze time, but capture brief moments, causing moving objects to blur in the frame. This natural motion blur that our eyes are accustomed to can be simulated in Modo. Once Motion Blur is enabled, Modo takes time samples forward and backward from the rendered frame blending them together to create the blur effect. Depending on the strength of the effect or the speed of motion in your frame, you may find it necessary to increase the number of anti-aliasing samples. Adjustments to Blur Length (like adjusting the exposure time for more or less blur) and Blur Offset can be found in the Camera Item's properties.

Animated Ball, Motion Blur Disabled

Animated Ball, Motion Blur Enabled

Enable

This option toggles the Motion Blur effect on and off when rendering.

Blur Length

This control affects the length of the motion blur effect when rendering animations. The default value of 50% is similar to a real-world camera set with a 180 degree shutter. In Modo, the 50% value results in the shutter being open for half of the exposure time of that frame. The blur effect is calculated by taking time samples both forwards and backwards from the current frame time and blending them together for the final blurred result. As such, it may be necessary to increase the level of anti-aliasing to produce a smooth result.

Blur Offset

This lets you control the center position in time where Modo samples its motion blur from. A setting of zero centers the motion blur on the current rendered frame, while a setting of -100% moves the position backwards one entire frame and a setting of 100% moves the position forward one entire frame.

TIP:The Antialiasing setting's effect is most apparent on geometric edges. A setting of 8 is generally acceptable and is a good trade off between quality and speed, though in reproducing effects such as Depth of Field or Motion Blur you may need to increase this value, possibly all the way up to 1024 to produce a pleasing result. If you find your shaded edges, such as cast shadows, refractions, reflections, procedural and image based textures are aliased (not smooth), then reducing the shading rate value or lowering the refinement threshold can help to increase shaded edge quality. If you are finding specific areas of an image to be noisy, that cannot be solved by Antialiasing and Refinement, such as soft reflections, blurry refractions, soft shadow edges, subsurface scattering, it may simply be a case where raising the number of samples specific to the effect eliminates the noise. These setting can be found in the associated Properties panels. Always keep in mind though, as more calculations are taken into account, the longer an image takes to render.

Stereoscopic

We see with two eyes, each slightly offset from the other, providing our brains with enough information to create a sense of depth to the world around us. Modo scenes are likewise 3D with depth, but the monitors we view scenes with are two-dimensional, as are the renders Modo creates. Activating the stereoscopic function in Modo brings back that missing depth information by rendering two offset images, that when viewed in tandem, reveal the depth present in your original scene.

The Stereoscopic function, when enabled, renders two separate frames, one appended L for left and R for right, noting which eye the frame was rendered for.

NOTE:When enabled, the Stereoscopic function is rendering two completely separate frames, so increased render times are to be expected. If applicable, only a single Irradiance Cache is calculated for stereoscopic renders.

Stereoscopic Enable Toggle

This setting is the global toggle to enable or disable the Stereoscopic function when rendering. When enabled, Modo renders two frames slightly offset from each other (like our eyes). The resulting images can then be combined in a variety of ways that, when viewed appropriately, reveal the depth present in your original scene.

Stereo Eyes

When Stereoscopic rendering in enabled, you can use this option to choose which eye is rendered. Choose to render only the Left eye, only the Right eye, or both simultaneously. When rendering both, you can additionally choose a Stereo Composite option to determine how Modo combines the resulting stereo images for final output.

Stereo Composite

Modo offers a variety of options for composing stereo images into a single image for viewing. Which option you choose is largely based on how the resulting image is viewed:

Anaglyph Red-Cyan - This method replaces the red channel or the right image with the red channel from the left image.

Anaglyph Grayscale - This method makes both frames into grayscale (luminance) images, then puts the left one in the Red output channel and the right one in the Green and Blue channels.

Anaglyph Red-Cyan Half Color - This method basically converts the left image to grayscale and puts it into the Red channel, and uses the right frame's Green and Blue channels for the output Green and Blue channels. This technique reduces 'retinal rivalry', which is a disturbing phenomenon caused by differing brightness of what should be the same objects seen by either eye.

Anaglyph Red-Cyan Optimized - This method further combats retinal rivalry by discarding the red channel from both images, keeping the right frame's cyan component, and mixing the left frame's Green and Blue channels at 70%/30% ratio to use in the output red channel.

Anaglyph Red-Blue Least Squares - This algorithm was invented by Eric Dubois. He used the optical properties of standard red and blue filters used for anaglyph glasses and derived magic numbers for blending stereo pairs into color anaglyphs by minimizing the error using a 'least squares' method.

Side-by-Side - Half-width frames are rendered and composed side by side into full width regular frames, with Left on Left and Right on Right.

Side-by-Side Full Width - Full sized frames are rendered separately and composed side by side in double width frames, with Left on Left and Right on Right.

Side-by-Side Cross Eyed - Half-width frames are rendered and composed side by side into full width regular frames, with Left on Right and Right on Left.

Side-by-Side Cross Eyed Full Width - Full sized frames are rendered separately and composed side by side in double width frames, with Left on Right and Right on Left.

Interocular Distance

The Interocular Distance technically means the distance between the center point of a person's two pupils, but here it is the measured offset between the two rendered images in Modo. The default setting of 65 mm is the average distance between the eyes of an adult. For scenes modeled to real world values, this is an appropriate setting that produces good results. Scenes of varying scale or exceptionally close/far objects may require this distance to change.

Convergence Distance

The convergence distance is the point within 3D space where the two offset images converge. In front of this point, objects appear to come forward, and behind this point, object appear to recede. It is easily understood by imagining it as the focal point of your scene, much like with DOF.

Where the focal distance is the position in space where all objects are in focus, objects in front or behind this position gradually blur, the Convergence Distance is the point in the scene you wish to direct your viewers eyes, as it is the most comfortable to view. This is exactly how your eyes work as well. If you were sitting in a restaurant and your eyes were focused on your glass of water on the table, this would effectively be the convergence point of your two eyes, your dinner plate would be in front of the glass coming forward, and your guest would be further away on the other side of the table.

Clipping Plane

Clipping refers to removing part of a scene from a rendered image while leaving the actual scene geometry intact. You can define a distance where all (or selected) surfaces are clipped, by enabling the Clipping Plane option and then defining a Clipping Distance. You can disable clipping on a per-material basis by disabling the Enable Surface Clipping option in the Material item.

TIP:A similar effect can be obtained through the use of Render Booleans that are not camera view dependent.

Enable

When enabled, any scene items within the bounds of the camera position and the clipping plane are clipped from the scene, removing them from the rendered image while retaining the actual scene geometry.

Clipping Distance

Defines the distance away from the camera where items are clipped.

Camera Safe Overlay

Overscan was a display technique used in older tube-type televisions sets, and because of this overscanning of the screen, the final size of the displayed image was unreliable. To address this, a Safe area was determined that would allow content creators to design within a reliable boundary to ensure visibility of elements on the screen. You can enable the Safe Area Overlay option in the Display viewport, which displays guide elements on the GL viewport. Once the option has been enabled, additional camera properties become visible when the Camera Item is selected, providing you with a means to adjust the default values.

Option

Description

Safe Area Overlay

Action Safe Visible

The Action Safe Area is the space determined to be where important action of a scene is clearly visible, but the bounds could possibly be against the edges of the screen. The Action Safe Visible option toggles the visibility of the outer guide of the Safe Area Overlay.

Horizontal/Vertical Margin

These margins determine the distance away from the edge where the guide is actually drawn in the viewport.

Title Safe Visible

The Title Safe Area is the space where all on-screen text and graphics are guaranteed to be visible, ensuring clear legibility. The Title Safe Visible option toggles the visibility of the inner guide of the Safe Area Overlay.

Horizontal/Vertical Margin

These margins determine the distance away from the edge where the guide is actually drawn in the viewport.

TIP:The Camera Safe Overlay guidelines only appear when a viewport is set to the Camera view type. Also, the camera must be set to Visible within the viewport (check the Display > Options to ensure Show Camera is enabled.

Overlay Opacity

This option determines the strength of the guides when drawn in the viewport. A higher opacity value means the guide lines are more apparent, and a lower opacity is more subtle.

Stereo Camera Volume

The separation of matching pixels in left and right stereo images is referred to as parallax. On the camera's convergence plane, which corresponds to the TV/Movie screen as far as the audience is concerned, there is no parallax. Objects at that distance appear to be in the same plane as the screen. Objects further than the convergence plane appear to be pushed back into the screen. The farther back they are, the greater the separation (parallax) between those pixels. Things in front of the convergence plane appear to be in front of the screen, and also have increasing parallax, though the images are shifted in the opposite direction.

If a scene exceeds a certain parallax amount, viewers may experience discomfort, or the intended effect could be ruined entirely. Conversely, if the scene doesn't have enough volume, then the stereo effect is barely noticeable. The amount of parallax into and out of the screen is critical to monitor when setting up a shot. Directors are even starting to plot depth scores so they can keep the parallax in a safe range, using it as a storytelling element as well as to catch sharp jumps which can be disturbing to viewers.

The Stereo Volume package on the camera enables you to define stereo volume by setting the front and back parallax amounts. You can then either use it to make sure the objects stay in range, or to measure shots by setting keyframes so it always matches the nearest and farthest elements in the scene. To get the Depth Score, just screen capture the Graph Editor.

Option

Description

Stereo Volume

This refers to the amount of depth of your scene between the front-most and back-most elements. It is an important quantity for designing a stereo image. It is referred to as a volume because it includes the entire space width, height, and depth of the frame. It is also related to the stereo budget, which is yet another way of saying the amount of depth used by the scene.

You can activate the display of this important visual guide in the 3D Viewport by enabling the Show Stereo Volume option in the Display viewport. Once enabled, the following options appear in the Properties panel when the Camera Item is selected.

Front/Back Parallax

This parameter sets the desired front and back parallax amounts. It is given as the separation distance's percentage of the screen width. When you set this, Modo computes the distance from the convergence plane where objects have that parallax amount, and draws the front or rear plane there. There are also two circles drawn with centers that are separated by the parallax amount.

Solid

When enabled, draws volume as filled quads, instead of outlines, making its apparent area more obvious.

Opacity

Determines the opacity of the drawn volume guides.

The Camera Item is a virtual lens into the 3D world inside Modo. Everything rendered is seen from this point of view, as such, these settings determine how your camera sees your 3D world. Much like how a real camera operates, the camera captures your image, and works in conjunction with the Render Item making your virtual snapshot viewable in the Render Display.

Zmodo Camera Setup

What is displayed depends on your render output, which acts as a virtual developer determining what actually gets rendered when any render command is invoked (or you press F9). While the Camera Item contains the properties related to the projection, frame aspect ratio, DOF, and so on, the actual frame resolution is set within the Render Item under the Frame properties.

Each new Modo scene has a single camera item by default. Additional cameras may be added to the scene with the menu bar command Item > Create Camera or within the Item List viewport Add Item function; left-click the Add Item button and select Camera from the dropdown. Additional cameras are helpful in providing alternate views of a scene, easing navigation, or for providing close-up views of a particular area, especially in situations where the hero (principle) camera is animated and locked, avoiding accidental changes. Only a single camera may be rendered from at a time, the particular camera used is specified in the Render Item: Frame sub-tab under the Render Camera option. Additionally, alternate cameras may be selected within the Render Preview viewport using the select camera option available, without affecting the Render Camera used for final rendering.

Working with the Camera

Camera attributes, such as Position and Rotation, can be modified in the Properties panel whenever the Camera Item is selected in either the Item List or the Shader Tree. By default, the camera icon is only visible in the Animate and Render 3D Viewports, but by changing the visibility in the viewport options, they can be made viewable in any viewport.

Hover the mouse pointer over the 3D Viewport you wish to modify, and press O on the keyboard to open the 3D Viewport Properties panel.

Camera Items can be modified interactively in the 3D Viewport while in Items mode (Camera Items have no editable components). Use the standard transform tools to move (W) and rotate (E) the camera. When making fine adjustments, you may find it easier to see how the camera is viewing the scene. This can be done by changing the viewport view button in the upper left to Camera. When set as such, black bars may be drawn over the viewport if the aspect ratio of the Frame Size is different from the viewport's aspect ratio. The area inside the bars represents the area of the scene that renders when a render command is invoked. To position the camera while in this view mode, various keyboard/mouse options are available.

Keyboard/Mouse Options

Camera Actions

Shift+Alt+Left-click and drag

Move camera item

Shift+Alt+RMB Drag

Move Up/Down direction only

Alt+Left-click and drag

Rotate around Target Distance

Alt+Right-click and drag

Rotate around Camera center

Ctrl+Middle-click and drag

Rotate around the Z axis

Ctrl+Alt+Left-click and drag

Move Forward/Backward only

Ctrl+Alt+Right-click and drag

Adjust Focal Length

Roll Mouse Wheel

Move Forward/Backward only

When tool handles are set to Advanced (within the Preferences or Tool Pipe), additional handles become visible, allowing you to interactively adjust camera setting in the viewport. The handles are:

Adjust Focal Length/Field of View

Adjust F-Stop for Depth of Field

Adjust Convergence Distance

Adjust Focus Distance

Parallax Offset Difference value (distance between items for left and right eye in final rendered frame) expressed as percentage of frame width

You can drag the handle around the scene to get an idea how far apart elements appear on the screen when rendered as a stereo image.

Generally speaking, for comfortable viewing you should keep the sum of the values for the closest elements in frame to the farthest elements around 5% and under. Adjustments can be made to Interoccular Distance and the Convergence Distance options to help in obtaining this result.

TIP:You may find it more intuitive to adjust the camera when the Action Center is set to Local, keeping the transform handles aligned to the Camera Item itself.

On occasion, you may wish to modify the size of the camera icon within the 3D Viewport. This can be accomplished with the Size setting in the Display viewport, which offers additional settings for modifying the camera's icon representation, including the ability to label the item, enable the Safe Area display, and toggle the display of the Stereo Volume. You can also adjust the camera's Scale option in the Properties panel.

NOTE:Changing the size of the camera icon in no way affects the rendering outcome or the overall scale of the scene.

Camera View

Option

Description

Name

This data field displays the current item name. You can change it by left-clicking within the field and typing the new name.

Transform

Position

An item transform that allows you to numerically position the Camera Item in XYZ space. By default, Position transforms originate from the item's center position.

Rotation

An item transform that allows you to numerically set the rotation of the Camera Item. By default, Rotation transforms originate from the item's center position.

Order

Allows you to set the order in which rotations are applied to the Camera Item. Changing the order that rotations are applied can sometimes help to reduce, or eliminate gimbal lock.

Scale

An item transform that determines the size of the icon in the 3D Viewport. Scale otherwise has no effect on the final rendered image.

Reset

Resets the selected transform values to (0,0,0), returning the items to their default state.

Zero

Returns the Camera Item's Center position to the world space center (0,0,0), without changing the position of the Camera Item itself.

Add

Transform Items are the channel groups associated to an item that store its transform values, controlling its position, rotation, and/or scale. By default, new items do not have any transform items associated with them (even though they are visible here within the Properties panel). This is useful as an optimization as only the necessary transforms are added on an as-needed basis, reducing scene overhead.

There are several ways to add Transform Items. One is by simply transforming the target item with one of the various transform tools (or by editing the values input fields). This action causes the particular transform item to be added automatically to the Channels viewport list. The Add function here can also be used to add the selected set of transforms to the Channels list while keeping the default 0,0,0 values (a necessary step for Referencing; in order to override channels, they must first exist).

Set Target

This option allows you to target specific items in a scene, automating the rotation of an item, so that it continuously points toward the targeted item. To use Set Target:

1. Make sure you are in Items mode, and select the Camera Item (and only the Camera Item).
2. Hold down the Ctrl key and select a single additional item in the Items list that you wish to target (such as a locator), in that order; as the selection order is important.
3. Click Set Target under the Camera View options sub-tab to enable the function.

Remember though, that the camera looks directly at the item's center position, regardless of the location of geometry within the target layer. Once activated, additional options appear:

Remove Target - Removes the target link between the two items.

Enable - Toggling this option off temporarily disables the targeting function while retaining the link between the items.

Set Focus Distance - This option sets the focal distance for DOF when targeting camera items to other item.

Roll - Provides the ability to offset the item's rotation angle away from the target.

Target Distance

This value defines the point around which the camera orbits. When you start a fresh project, the camera is back 4M on Z and the Target Distance is 4M. That is why it orbits around 0.

This value is reset automatically when you zoom in the 3D Viewport. Modo fires a ray out from the camera and automatically sets the target distance based on the first surface the ray intersects.

Sync to View

This option changes the position and orientation of the currently selected Camera Item to match the currently selected 3D Viewport as closely as possible. There are some caveats in that the camera's view scale depends on the focal length and image resolution (for aspect) and therefore cannot be matched precisely.

Projection

Projection Type

Modo can render traditional perspective cameras as well as orthographic cameras and spherical cameras. This control allows you to choose the desired camera type:

Perspective cameras show perspective distortion where the scale of an element appears to diminish in the distance. This traditional perspective view is what most artists would expect when rendering; similar to what a real world camera might capture.

Perspective cameras are found most often in visual FX, product and architectural visualization, and anywhere artists are trying to mimic reality.

Orthographic cameras do not exhibit any perspective distortion as all rays are fired from the camera in parallel lines.

Orthographic rendering is very useful in news/info graphics and architectural plan rendering.

Spherical cameras capture the entire 360 degree view of a scene.

Spherical cameras are useful in capturing images that can be later applied as image based lighting and reflection maps, among other things.

Cylindrical projection captures the entire 360 view from the perspective of a tube, removing the polar areas of the projection.

Perspective Camera

Orthographic Camera

Spherical Camera

Cylindrical Projection

Focal Length

This setting controls the amount of zoom, just as it would with a real world camera. The actual definition of Focal Length is the distance between the lens and the point where the rays converge after having been refracted by the lens.

Wide angle lenses (those with short focal lengths) capture more of a given scene than their telephoto counterpart. Lower focal lengths exhibit more perspective distortion, conversely, longer focal lengths minimize the effect of perspective. To zoom out you should decrease the focal length and to zoom in you increase the value. This control is set in real world metric units to match physical cameras.

Focal Length can be adjusted on the CameraProperties panel or interactively in the 3D Viewport. If you are looking through the Camera (and 3D Viewport set to Camera) you can use Ctrl+Alt+right-click and drag to adjust the Focal Length interactively (Ctrl+Alt+left-click and drag moves the camera itself forwards and backwards).

Angle of View

In some instances, it may be easier to specify an angle of view instead of a Focal Length. This setting allows you to specify the Angle of View as a number of degrees horizontally, and once set, the Focal Length is updated to reflect the new value.

Lens Distortion

In a real world camera, light rays are bent through a spherical lens element resulting in a slightly distorted image. 3D rendered images don't pass through a lens and likewise don't exhibit the distortions we're accustomed to in photography. The Lens Distortion setting can be used to introduce these familiar distortions in a realistic way. Positive values create an increasing Barrel distortion, and negative values create increasing Pincushion distortion effects.

Standard CG Wide Angle View

Same view w/ Lens Distortion applied

Film Back

In the real world, every camera has certain attributes that are a fixed physical size. In the analog days, this was based on the film size (such as 35 mm, 70 mm, and so on). With digital cameras, it is the sensor size (such as 1/3, 1/2, APS, and so on). The size of this fixed capture area works in conjunction with the focal length to control the field of view that is captured. Modo offers the ability to modify the virtual capture area to any conceivable size.

For example, should you wish to compose 3D rendered elements together with images from a camera, for the most convincing results, matching the real-life sizes and aspect ratios of the original camera is highly recommended. Many popular preset sizes are provided for convenience, but you can also define custom values with the Width and Height settings. The Film Fit setting allow you to control Modo's behavior when the frame size specified in the Render Item, is a different aspect ratio than the film back settings.

Film Back Preset

This control allows you to choose from a number of available preset real world cameras. Choosing a preset automatically sets the Film Width and Height, and the corresponding Frame Size (in the Render Items > Frame Tab). You can also save your own presets by selecting (new preset) from the bottom of the list. When selecting this option, a dialog displays asking you to name your preset. Your new preset is saved in Modo's config file and is available immediately for selection.

Film Width/Height

Film Width and Film Height correspond to the exposed region of the film negative in a real camera set in real world measurements. In some applications, this is known as the Film Gate. One way to visualize this is to imagine the camera frustum as a pyramid whose base dimensions are the Film Width and Height and terminating at the apex. The distance from the base to the apex is the Focal Length (the apex being the position of Modo's virtual aperture and the position where the camera rotates, which incidentally, is also the nodal point). The base of the pyramid can be shifted around within its plane (shearing the pyramid) by using the Film Offset controls.

Film Offset X/Y

This function allows you to offset the position of the Film Back without changing the position of the Camera Item itself, providing unique perspective views not otherwise possible. The function is especially useful when rendering architectural type images that prefer two point perspective as opposed to three. By rotating the camera on the X axis to 0° (eliminating the vertical perspective), the offset can be adjusted to modify the camera's view (framing the subject properly) while retaining the perspective of the camera's original position.

The three images below illustrate the differences between film offset and simply moving the camera.

A.) The camera standard perspective view with the subject centered in the frame.

B.) Rotates the camera X axis to 0° and uses a Film Offset to frame the subject eliminating the vertical perspective.

C.) Is the default perspective camera again with no offset, but the camera was rotated to 0° on the X axis again and the camera's position was modified upward to frame the subject producing a dramatically different perspective than that offered by B.

A.) Normal Perspective Camera

B.) 0° X-axis rotation w/ Film Offset

C.) 0° X-axis rotation w/ camera offset

Film Fit

Film Fit only matters when the Camera Item's film gate (defined by the Film Width and Height above) has a different aspect ratio than the Render Item's resolution gate (defined by the actual frame's Width, Height, and Pixel AspectRatio). In that case, the two possibilities are that the horizontal borders coincide, or the vertical borders coincide. The Fill and Overscan options automatically select whether to match the horizontal or vertical borders in order to make the resolution gate fit within the film gate or vice versa.

You can think of the film gate (Film Width and Height) as the size of the film in the camera in real world units, with the film being analog (not divided into pixels). Then you take the exposed film frame and lay it on a digital scanner (the resolution gate), which is divided into pixels, and which might have a different shape (wider or taller). It's the resolution gate that gets saved to the output image file.

Camera Effects

Distant Chair in Focus

Near Chair in Focus

Option

Description

Depth of Field

Depth of Field (DOF), as it relates to photography, is the area of acceptable focus in an image; any area outside gets increasingly blurry as it recedes from the focal plane. The softening of edges as they recede from the plane is highly dependent on the F-Stop setting. Smaller values represent larger apertures producing softer blurs, conversely, higher values represent smaller apertures producing less blurriness.

Enable

This option toggles the Depth of Field effect on and off when rendering.

Focal Distance

When rendering with Depth of Field enabled, this value sets the distance out from the camera center at which the image is perfectly in focus. To quickly set the focus distance for the camera, you can use the Autofocus button or press Ctrl+A with the mouse over the Camera viewport. You can also set this value interactively with the Item Transform tool (Y) when the Camera item is selected.

Autofocus

This command sets the Focal Distance to whatever geometry is at the direct center of the current camera view. Setting the Focal Distance is only useful when rendering with Depth of Field enabled. You can also use the keyboard shortcut Ctrl+F when the mouse is over any Render Preview window.

F-Stop

This control on the Modo camera is only effective when Depth of Field is enabled. In this case, lowering the F-Stop decreases the depth of field (apparent area of focus) just as it would in real-world cameras.

NOTE:F-Stop does not affect exposure of light since the Modo camera captures real world radiance values as they are striking the virtual CCD. This provides linear light values to the final image which provides an opportunity for post processing the exposure for maximum flexibility.

Iris Blades

This controls the way the blurriness looks in images with shallow depth of field, generally referred to as Bokeh. Bright areas, when out of focus tend to take on the shape of the camera's iris, so a smaller number of blades make more obvious geometric patterns in the bokeh shapes, while larger values look more circular. A setting of 0 makes a perfectly circular shape.

Iris Blades 0 (default)

Iris Blades 3

Iris Blades 5

Iris Blades 7

Iris Blades 9

Iris Rotation

This option changes the rotation angle of the virtual iris when rendering shallow depth of field in images, which in turn rotates the bokeh shapes in the final rendered output.

Edge Weighting

When Modo calculates Depth of Field, rays are fired in a pattern that simulates the iris blades producing the bokeh effect shapes. The edge weighting option concentrates those rays toward the center or edges of the iris, depending on the value.

A value of 0% concentrates all the values at the center of the iris, while a setting of 100% concentrates the rays toward the outer edge. A value of 50% evenly distributes the rays. As light tends to be stronger in the outer edge of the iris in the real world, setting around 60% to 70% tend to produce the most realistic results.

Edge Weight 0%

Edge Weight 25%

Edge Weight 50%

Edge Weight 75%

Edge Weight 100%

Motion Blur

Real cameras don't freeze time, but capture brief moments, causing moving objects to blur in the frame. This natural motion blur that our eyes are accustomed to can be simulated in Modo. Once Motion Blur is enabled, Modo takes time samples forward and backward from the rendered frame blending them together to create the blur effect. Depending on the strength of the effect or the speed of motion in your frame, you may find it necessary to increase the number of anti-aliasing samples. Adjustments to Blur Length (like adjusting the exposure time for more or less blur) and Blur Offset can be found in the Camera Item's properties.

Animated Ball, Motion Blur Disabled

Animated Ball, Motion Blur Enabled

Enable

This option toggles the Motion Blur effect on and off when rendering.

Blur Length

This control affects the length of the motion blur effect when rendering animations. The default value of 50% is similar to a real-world camera set with a 180 degree shutter. In Modo, the 50% value results in the shutter being open for half of the exposure time of that frame. The blur effect is calculated by taking time samples both forwards and backwards from the current frame time and blending them together for the final blurred result. As such, it may be necessary to increase the level of anti-aliasing to produce a smooth result.

Blur Offset

This lets you control the center position in time where Modo samples its motion blur from. A setting of zero centers the motion blur on the current rendered frame, while a setting of -100% moves the position backwards one entire frame and a setting of 100% moves the position forward one entire frame.

TIP:The Antialiasing setting's effect is most apparent on geometric edges. A setting of 8 is generally acceptable and is a good trade off between quality and speed, though in reproducing effects such as Depth of Field or Motion Blur you may need to increase this value, possibly all the way up to 1024 to produce a pleasing result. If you find your shaded edges, such as cast shadows, refractions, reflections, procedural and image based textures are aliased (not smooth), then reducing the shading rate value or lowering the refinement threshold can help to increase shaded edge quality. If you are finding specific areas of an image to be noisy, that cannot be solved by Antialiasing and Refinement, such as soft reflections, blurry refractions, soft shadow edges, subsurface scattering, it may simply be a case where raising the number of samples specific to the effect eliminates the noise. These setting can be found in the associated Properties panels. Always keep in mind though, as more calculations are taken into account, the longer an image takes to render.

Stereoscopic

We see with two eyes, each slightly offset from the other, providing our brains with enough information to create a sense of depth to the world around us. Modo scenes are likewise 3D with depth, but the monitors we view scenes with are two-dimensional, as are the renders Modo creates. Activating the stereoscopic function in Modo brings back that missing depth information by rendering two offset images, that when viewed in tandem, reveal the depth present in your original scene.

The Stereoscopic function, when enabled, renders two separate frames, one appended L for left and R for right, noting which eye the frame was rendered for.

NOTE:When enabled, the Stereoscopic function is rendering two completely separate frames, so increased render times are to be expected. If applicable, only a single Irradiance Cache is calculated for stereoscopic renders.

Stereoscopic Enable Toggle

This setting is the global toggle to enable or disable the Stereoscopic function when rendering. When enabled, Modo renders two frames slightly offset from each other (like our eyes). The resulting images can then be combined in a variety of ways that, when viewed appropriately, reveal the depth present in your original scene.

Stereo Eyes

When Stereoscopic rendering in enabled, you can use this option to choose which eye is rendered. Choose to render only the Left eye, only the Right eye, or both simultaneously. When rendering both, you can additionally choose a Stereo Composite option to determine how Modo combines the resulting stereo images for final output.

Stereo Composite

Modo offers a variety of options for composing stereo images into a single image for viewing. Which option you choose is largely based on how the resulting image is viewed:

Anaglyph Red-Cyan - This method replaces the red channel or the right image with the red channel from the left image.

Anaglyph Grayscale - This method makes both frames into grayscale (luminance) images, then puts the left one in the Red output channel and the right one in the Green and Blue channels.

Anaglyph Red-Cyan Half Color - This method basically converts the left image to grayscale and puts it into the Red channel, and uses the right frame's Green and Blue channels for the output Green and Blue channels. This technique reduces 'retinal rivalry', which is a disturbing phenomenon caused by differing brightness of what should be the same objects seen by either eye.

Anaglyph Red-Cyan Optimized - This method further combats retinal rivalry by discarding the red channel from both images, keeping the right frame's cyan component, and mixing the left frame's Green and Blue channels at 70%/30% ratio to use in the output red channel.

Anaglyph Red-Blue Least Squares - This algorithm was invented by Eric Dubois. He used the optical properties of standard red and blue filters used for anaglyph glasses and derived magic numbers for blending stereo pairs into color anaglyphs by minimizing the error using a 'least squares' method.

Side-by-Side - Half-width frames are rendered and composed side by side into full width regular frames, with Left on Left and Right on Right.

Side-by-Side Full Width - Full sized frames are rendered separately and composed side by side in double width frames, with Left on Left and Right on Right.

Side-by-Side Cross Eyed - Half-width frames are rendered and composed side by side into full width regular frames, with Left on Right and Right on Left.

Side-by-Side Cross Eyed Full Width - Full sized frames are rendered separately and composed side by side in double width frames, with Left on Right and Right on Left.

Interocular Distance

The Interocular Distance technically means the distance between the center point of a person's two pupils, but here it is the measured offset between the two rendered images in Modo. The default setting of 65 mm is the average distance between the eyes of an adult. For scenes modeled to real world values, this is an appropriate setting that produces good results. Scenes of varying scale or exceptionally close/far objects may require this distance to change.

Convergence Distance

The convergence distance is the point within 3D space where the two offset images converge. In front of this point, objects appear to come forward, and behind this point, object appear to recede. It is easily understood by imagining it as the focal point of your scene, much like with DOF.

Where the focal distance is the position in space where all objects are in focus, objects in front or behind this position gradually blur, the Convergence Distance is the point in the scene you wish to direct your viewers eyes, as it is the most comfortable to view. This is exactly how your eyes work as well. If you were sitting in a restaurant and your eyes were focused on your glass of water on the table, this would effectively be the convergence point of your two eyes, your dinner plate would be in front of the glass coming forward, and your guest would be further away on the other side of the table.

Clipping Plane

Clipping refers to removing part of a scene from a rendered image while leaving the actual scene geometry intact. You can define a distance where all (or selected) surfaces are clipped, by enabling the Clipping Plane option and then defining a Clipping Distance. You can disable clipping on a per-material basis by disabling the Enable Surface Clipping option in the Material item.

TIP:A similar effect can be obtained through the use of Render Booleans that are not camera view dependent.

Enable

When enabled, any scene items within the bounds of the camera position and the clipping plane are clipped from the scene, removing them from the rendered image while retaining the actual scene geometry.

Clipping Distance

Defines the distance away from the camera where items are clipped.

Camera Safe Overlay

Overscan was a display technique used in older tube-type televisions sets, and because of this overscanning of the screen, the final size of the displayed image was unreliable. To address this, a Safe area was determined that would allow content creators to design within a reliable boundary to ensure visibility of elements on the screen. You can enable the Safe Area Overlay option in the Display viewport, which displays guide elements on the GL viewport. Once the option has been enabled, additional camera properties become visible when the Camera Item is selected, providing you with a means to adjust the default values.

Option

Description

Safe Area Overlay

Action Safe Visible

The Action Safe Area is the space determined to be where important action of a scene is clearly visible, but the bounds could possibly be against the edges of the screen. The Action Safe Visible option toggles the visibility of the outer guide of the Safe Area Overlay.

Horizontal/Vertical Margin

These margins determine the distance away from the edge where the guide is actually drawn in the viewport.

Title Safe Visible

The Title Safe Area is the space where all on-screen text and graphics are guaranteed to be visible, ensuring clear legibility. The Title Safe Visible option toggles the visibility of the inner guide of the Safe Area Overlay.

Horizontal/Vertical Margin

These margins determine the distance away from the edge where the guide is actually drawn in the viewport.

TIP:The Camera Safe Overlay guidelines only appear when a viewport is set to the Camera view type. Also, the camera must be set to Visible within the viewport (check the Display > Options to ensure Show Camera is enabled.

Overlay Opacity

This option determines the strength of the guides when drawn in the viewport. A higher opacity value means the guide lines are more apparent, and a lower opacity is more subtle.

Stereo Camera Volume

The separation of matching pixels in left and right stereo images is referred to as parallax. On the camera's convergence plane, which corresponds to the TV/Movie screen as far as the audience is concerned, there is no parallax. Objects at that distance appear to be in the same plane as the screen. Objects further than the convergence plane appear to be pushed back into the screen. The farther back they are, the greater the separation (parallax) between those pixels. Things in front of the convergence plane appear to be in front of the screen, and also have increasing parallax, though the images are shifted in the opposite direction.

If a scene exceeds a certain parallax amount, viewers may experience discomfort, or the intended effect could be ruined entirely. Conversely, if the scene doesn't have enough volume, then the stereo effect is barely noticeable. The amount of parallax into and out of the screen is critical to monitor when setting up a shot. Directors are even starting to plot depth scores so they can keep the parallax in a safe range, using it as a storytelling element as well as to catch sharp jumps which can be disturbing to viewers.

The Stereo Volume package on the camera enables you to define stereo volume by setting the front and back parallax amounts. You can then either use it to make sure the objects stay in range, or to measure shots by setting keyframes so it always matches the nearest and farthest elements in the scene. To get the Depth Score, just screen capture the Graph Editor.

Option

Description

Stereo Volume

This refers to the amount of depth of your scene between the front-most and back-most elements. It is an important quantity for designing a stereo image. It is referred to as a volume because it includes the entire space width, height, and depth of the frame. It is also related to the stereo budget, which is yet another way of saying the amount of depth used by the scene.

You can activate the display of this important visual guide in the 3D Viewport by enabling the Show Stereo Volume option in the Display viewport. Once enabled, the following options appear in the Properties panel when the Camera Item is selected.

Front/Back Parallax

This parameter sets the desired front and back parallax amounts. It is given as the separation distance's percentage of the screen width. When you set this, Modo computes the distance from the convergence plane where objects have that parallax amount, and draws the front or rear plane there. There are also two circles drawn with centers that are separated by the parallax amount.

Solid

When enabled, draws volume as filled quads, instead of outlines, making its apparent area more obvious.

Opacity

Determines the opacity of the drawn volume guides.