Php Mvc Framework

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  2. Mvc Frameworks Php
Mvc

Codeigniter is a PHP framework and follows MVC architecture. It is an open source. It provides a great flexibility to PHP coders with its built in functions. This framework is used to develop full featured web applications. This framework is easy to learn and there are no coding restrictions to follow, we can use core PHP also. Web Development PHP MVC Framework ApPHP MVC Framework is designed to provide modern and rapid development of websites, web applications and web services. It implements the the Model-View-Controller (MVC) design pattern and principles, including separation of display, logic, and data layers.

March 1, 2006 - Disclaimer: Since a lot of people seem to memisunderstanding this article. It isn't about OOP vs. Proceduralprogramming styles. I happen to lean more towards procedural, but couldeasily have gone more OOP. I simplified the code a bit for brevity, buthave added a light OO layer back in the model now. Not that it makes adifference. What I was hoping to get across here is a simple example ofhow you can use PHP as-is, without additional complex external layers,to apply an MVC approach with clean and simple views and still have allthe goodness of fancy Web 2.0 features. If you think I am out topersonally offend you and your favourite framework, then you have thewrong idea. I just happen find most of them too complex for my needs andthis is a proposed alternative. If you have found a framework that worksfor you, great.

So you want to build the next fancy Web 2.0 site? You'll need some gear.Most likely in the form of a big complex MVC framework with plenty oflayers that abstracts away your database, your HTML, your Javascript andin the end your application itself. If it is a really good framework itwill provide a dozen things you'll never need.
I am obviously not a fan of such frameworks. I like stuff I canunderstand in an instant. Both because it lets me be productive rightaway and because 6 months from now when I come back to fix something,again I will only need an instant to figure out what is going on. So,here is my current approach to building rich web applications. The mainpieces are:

Tutorial

MVC?

I don't have much of a problem with MVC itself. It's the frameworkbaggage that usually comes along with it that I avoid. Parts offrameworks can be useful as long as you can separate the parts out thatyou need. As for MVC, if you use it carefully, it can be useful in a webapplication. Just make sure you avoid the temptation of creating asingle monolithic controller. A web application by its very nature is aseries of small discrete requests. If you send all of your requeststhrough a single controller on a single machine you have just defeatedthis very important architecture. Discreteness gives you scalability andmodularity. You can break large problems up into a series of very smalland modular solutions and you can deploy these across as many servers asyou like. You need to tie them together to some extent most likelythrough some backend datastore, but keep them as separate as possible.This means you want your views and controllers very close to each otherand you want to keep your controllers as small as possible.

Goals for this approach

Clean and simple design

  • HTML should look like HTML
  • Keep the PHP code in the views extremely simple: function calls,simple loops and variable substitutions should be all you need

Secure

  • Input validation using pecl/filter as a data firewall
  • When possible, avoid layers and other complexities to make codeeasier to audit

Fast

  • Avoid include_once and require_once
  • Use APC and apc_store/apc_fetch for caching data that rarelychanges
  • Stay with procedural style unless something is truly an object
  • Avoid locks at all costs

Example Application

It is a form entry page with a bit of Javascript magic along with ansqlite backend. Click around a bit. Try to add an entry, then modify it.You will see the server->client JSON traffic displayed at the bottomfor debug purposes.

The Code

This is the code layout. It uses AJAX (with JSON instead of XML over thewire) for data validation. It also uses a couple of components from theYahoo! user interface library andPHP's PDO mechanism in the model.

The presentation layer is above the line and the business logic below.In this simple example I have just one view, represented by theadd.html file. It is actually called add.php on the live server, butI was too lazy to update the diagram and it really doesn't matter. Thecontroller for that view is called add_c.inc. I tend to name filesthat the user loads directly as something.html or something.php andincluded files as something.inc. The rest of the files in thepresentation layer are common files that all views in my applicationwould share.

Php Mvc Framework W3schools

ui.inc has the common user interface components, common.jscontains Javascript helper functions that mostly call into thepresentation platform libraries, and styles.css provides thestylesheet.

A common db.inc file implements the model. I tend to use separateinclude files for each table in my database. In this case there is ajust single table called 'items', so I have a single items.inc file.

Input Filtering

You will notice a distinct lack of input filtering yet if you try toinject any sort of XSS it won't work. This is because I am using thepecl/filter extension to automagicallysanitize all user data for me.

View - add.html

Let's start with the View in add.html:

The main thing to note here is that the majority of this file is verybasic HTML. No styles, or javascript and no complicated PHP. It containsonly simple presentation-level PHP logic. A modulus operation togglesthe colours for the rows of items, and a loop around a heredoc(<<<)block performs variable substitutions. head() and foot()function calls add the common template headers and footers.

If you wanted to make it even cleaner you could use anauto_prepend_fileconfiguration setting which tells PHP to always include a certain fileat the top of your script. Then you could take out the include calls andthe initial head() function call. I tend to prefer less magic and tocontrol my template dependencies right in my templates with a very cleanand simple include structure. Try to avoid using include_once andrequire_once if possible. You are much better off using a straightinclude or require call, because the *_once() calls are very slowunder an opcode cache. Sometimes there is no way around using thesecalls, but recognize that each one costs you an extra open() syscalland hash look up.

ui.inc

Here is the UI helper code from ui.inc:

This file just contains the head() and foot() functions that containmostly plain HTML. I tend to drop out of PHP mode if I have big blocksof HTML with minimal variable substitutions. You could also useheredocblocks here, as we saw in add.html.

Controller - add_c.inc

Our Controller is in add_c.inc:

Our controller is going to manipulate the model, so it first includesthe model files. The controller then determines whether the request is aPOST request, which means a backend request to deal with. (You could dofurther checks to allow an empty POST to work like a GET, but I amtrying to keep the example simple.) The controller also sets theContent-Type to application/json before sending back JSON data.Although this mime-type is not yet official so you might want to useapplication/x-json instead. As far as the browser is concerned, itdoesn't care either way.

The controller then performs the appropriate action in the modelaccording to the specified command. A load_item, for example, ends upcalling the load() method in the data model for the items table andsends back a JSON-encoded response to the browser.

The important piece here is that the controller is specific to aparticular view. In some cases you may have a controller that can handlemultiple very similar views. Often the controller for a view is only acouple of lines and can easily be placed directly at the top of the viewfile itself.

common.js

Next I need to catch these JSON replies, which I do in common.js:

The postForm() and postData() functions demonstrate the geniusof the Yahoo user interfacelibraries: they provide us withsingle-line functions to do our backend requests. The fN function inthe callback object does the bulk of the work, taking the JSON repliesgenerated by our controller and manipulating the DOM in the browser insome way. There are also fade() and unfade() functions that arecalled on status messages, and on validate errors to produce flashingred field effects.

Note the bottom half of this file where fancyItems() andfancyForm() implement all the client-side magic to animate the formsby attaching handlers to various events. Often you will see server-sidebusiness logic nicely separated from the templates, but then there arebig blocks of complicated client-side Javascript mixed into the templatewhich in my opinion defeats the clean separation goal. By going throughand attaching appropriate mouseover, mouseout, focus, blur and clickhandlers after the fact I can keep my templates extremely clean andstill get a very dynamic experience. Here I am using the eventlibrary from the Yahoo! userinterface libraries to add thehandlers.

Model - db.inc

Now for the model. First the generic db.inc which applies to all ourmodel components:

I am using sqlite via PDO for this example, so theconnect() function is quite simple. The example also uses a fatalerror function that provides a helpful backtrace for any fatal databaseerror. The backtrace includes all the arguments passed to the functionsalong the trace.

The load_list() function uses an interesting trick: it uses APC'sapc_fetch() function to fetch an arraycontaining the list of item categories. If the list isn't in sharedmemory, I read the file from disk and generate the array. I have made itgeneric by using a variablevariable. Ifyou call it with load_list('categories'), it automatically loadscategories.txt from the disk and creates a global array called$categories.

Model - items.inc

Finally, I have the model code for the items table, items.inc:

At the top of each model file, I like to use a comment to record theschema of any associated tables. I then provide a simple class with acouple of methods to manipulate the table: in this case, insert(),modify() and load(). Each function checks the database handleproperty to avoid reconnecting in case I have multiple calls on eachrequest. You could also handle this directly in your connect()method.

To avoid an extra time syscall, I use $_SERVER['REQUEST_TIME']to retrieve the request time. I am also using PDO's named parametersmechanism, which is cleaner than trying to use question markplaceholders.

Conclusion

Clean separation of your views, controller logic and backend model logicis easy to do with PHP. Using these ideas, you should be able to build aclean framework aimed specifically at your requirements instead oftrying to refactor a much larger and more complex external framework.

Mvc Frameworks Php

Many frameworks may look very appealing at first glance because theyseem to reduce web application development to a couple of trivial stepsleading to some code generation and often automatic schema detection,but these same shortcuts are likely to be your bottlenecks as well sincethey achieve this simplicity by sacrifizing flexibility and performance.Nothing is going to build your application for you, no matter what itpromises. You are going to have to build it yourself. Instead ofstarting by fixing the mistakes in some foreign framework andrefactoring all the things that don't apply to your environment spendyour time building a lean and reusable pattern that fits yourrequirements directly. In the end I think you will find that yourhomegrown small framework has saved you time and aggravation and you endup with a better product.